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What Microbes are in ProEM1?Updated a year ago

Microbial species is another major aspect of an effective probiotic. Certain species of microbes have been heavily studied to not only be able to survive the high acidity of the stomach but provide the key benefits you're looking to achieve. Lactobacillus spp. is the most common beneficial microbe that comes to mind when people think about probiotics. Backed by an overwhelming amount of research, Lactobacillus spp. has been proven time and again to be a benefit to the human digestive track and survive the acidic environment. Saccharomyces cerevisiae or yeast is another common probiotic microorganism. Pro EM-1 contains four species of Lactobacillus; (1) Lactobacillus plantarum, (2) Lactobacillus casei, (3) Lactobacillus fermentus, (4) Lactobacillus bulgaricus as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. 

Lactobacillus plantarum:
L. plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that can be found in a range of environmental niches. The bacterium can colonize the intestinal tract of human and other mammals. L. plantarum is found in many fermented food products as well as anaerobic plant matter. An unusual aspect of this bacterium is the ability to consume oxygen and create hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide acts to exclude competing bacteria, aka nonbeneficial bacteria. L. plantarum has been heavily studied on its significant antioxidant activities and also helps to maintain intestinal permeability, suppress the growth of gas-producing bacteria and may benefit some who suffer from IBS (1). One study found an increase in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, meaning a possible benefit in the treatment of depression (2).
Lactobacillus casei:
Most commonly known for its use in fermented food such as yogurt, L. casei are normally found in the oral cavity and the digestive tract of humans. L. casei has been shown to balance the gut microbiota, improve gastrointestinal dysfunction, and prevent inflammatory responses. Once study showed and increase in mood and a decrease anxiety (3).
Lactobacillus fermentus:
Most shown to have antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high antioxidative activity. Study show the ability for L. fermentus to eradicate salmonella (4).
Lactobacillus bulgaricus:
Main bacteria used in yogurt production and other naturally fermented food products. It is also found naturally in the intestinal tract in mammals living in Bulgaria. Key in the probiotic qualities of fermented foods. Studies have shown resistance to antibiotics and successful in preventing diarrhea sometimes caused by antibiotics.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae:
Species of yeast used in winemaking, baking and brewing since ancient times. Many proteins important in the human body rely on beneficial yeast. Commonly called brewers yeast, nutritional yeast, or bakers yeast.  S. cerevisiae (or brewers yeast) is often recommended for nursing moms to increase mild supply and decrease the chance of mastitis. Studies have shown that in addition to fermentation, yeast can prevent and treat intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects (5).
Rhodopseudomonas palustris:
Found extensively in nature, R. palustris is lesser known as a human probiotic. With the ability to use a variety of sources for energy (light, inorganic and organic compounds) it can grow in a diverse and changing environment. Although not heavily study as a human probiotic, R. palustris has shown promise as a successful probiotic in other mammals as an alternative to probiotics. The enzymes and proteins produced by this bacterium also help to feed other beneficial microbes in the gut. 



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